Fields, currents and aerosols in the lower troposphere by Reiter, Reinhold.

Cover of: Fields, currents and aerosols in the lower troposphere | Reiter, Reinhold.

Published by Amerind Pub. in New Delhi .

Written in English

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  • Troposphere.

Edition Notes

Book details

StatementR. Reiter.
SeriesNatural science series -- 71
ContributionsScientific research reports.
The Physical Object
Paginationxix, 714 p. :
Number of Pages714
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL22041282M
ISBN 109061914698

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Fields, Currents and Aerosols in the Lower Troposphere. Revised and enlarged cturer: Amerind Publishing. Fields, currents and aerosols in the lower troposphere. [Reinhold Reiter] However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study.

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ELECTRICAL STRUCTURE FROM 0 TO 30 KILOMETERS AEROSOLS IN THE LOWER ATMOSPHERE Within the portion of the atmosphere under consideration in this chapter there are three primary regions of interest to atmospheric electricity: the boundary layer (approximately the first 3 to 5 km), the remaining portion of the troposphere, and the stratosphere.

Aerosol particles are ubiquitous and play an important role in the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere, especially in the lower 10–km layer, the troposphere. Above a turbulent layer that extends from the surface to an altitude of 1–2 km, the troposphere is filled with a currents and aerosols in the lower troposphere book particle population that constitutes the background.

Data from this instrument confirm the generally accepted inference that stratospheric aerosol at Fields in the lower stratosphere is primarily sulfate aerosol but also indicates that the presence of organics in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere is far more common than generally considered by the remote sensing community and that a substantial fraction of stratospheric aerosol contain meteoritic.

The paper deals with the mechanism of generating a ground potential gradient electric field in regions of seismic activity and its penetration into the ionosphere. The mechanism is based on the electrode effect of charge separation under the action of the natural atmospheric electric field, A large, non-compensated, space charge is formed following a chain of ion-molecular reactions as a Fields by: Aircraft in situ measurements suggest that aerosols at lower altitudes of the ATAL are largely composed of carbonaceous and sulfate materials (carbon/sulfur elemental ratio ranging from 2 to 10).

Back trajectory analysis from Cloud‐Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization observations indicates that deep convection over the Indian subcontinent supplies the ATAL through the transport of pollution.

In the troposphere, water vapor, which accounts for up to ∼1% of air, varies spatially and decreases rapidly with altitude. The water vapor mixing ratio in the stratosphere and above is almost four orders of magnitude smaller than that in the tropical lower troposphere.

MAJOR WIND CURRENTS IN THE EARTH’S TROPOSPHERE The major wind currents on Earth have been classified into 3 main air cells: the “Hadley cell” that occurs from the Equator to latitude 30 ° north and south, the “Ferrel cell” that occurs from the latitude 30 ° to the 60 ° in both north and southFile Size: KB.

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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text. Start studying meteorology test 5. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. the net effect of more sulfate aerosols in the troposphere. Lower air temperatures or an enhanced green house effect. As determined by impactor samplers flown on ER‐2 and DC‐8 aircraft, black carbon aerosol (BCA) mass loadings in the stratosphere average nanograms per standard cubic meter, or % of the total aerosol.

The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place. It contains 75% of the atmosphere's mass and 25% of the total mass of water vapour and aerosols. The average height of the troposphere is 18 km (11 mi; 59, ft) in the tropics, 17 km (11 mi; 56, ft) in the middle latitudes, and 6 km ( mi; 20, ft) in the polar.

Abstract. Aerosols are recognized to have a role in global and regional climate and chemistry [1,2]. Sources of aerosols include mechanical generation (e.g., soil dust, sea salt spray, smoke and ash), and dispersed sources due to gas-to-particle : Richard P.

Turco, Fangqun Yu. The lower troposphere is characterized by the strongest spatiotemporal variability of almost all parameters because of complex geophysical, synoptic, and meteorological factors.

According to the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the current lowest level of scientific understanding in estimates of radiative forcing of different Cited by: 2.

Two pieces of information are desired in the troposphere with sensitivity to the lowest 2 km for O3 and CO to allow separation of the lower-most troposphere from the free troposphere.

Aerosol properties of Optical Depth (AOD), Absorption Optical Depth (AAOD), Optical Centroid Height (AOCH) and Aerosol Index (AI) will also be measured. shallow layer separating troposphere from the next thermal layer of the atmosphere (stratosphere) is tropopause.

Various clouds, thunderstorms, cyclones and anticyclones occur in this sphere because of the concentration of almost all the water vapour (4% of the atmosphere composition) aerosols in it.

This difference is evidence that other loss processes, principally ion‐aerosol attachment are significant in determining the ion concentrations in the lower troposphere. The small ion recombination timescale varies as 1/α n and is typically s for n = ion pairs cm −3, increasing to s for ion pairs cm −3, more Cited by: launching sulfate aerosols into the troposphere and lower stratosphere.

This scheme falls under the solar radiation management category. The goal of sulfate aerosols is to reduce the global mean surface temperature by accumulating aerosols in the atmosphere that will reflect sunlight away from Size: KB. Figure 1: Annual mean Temperature of the Lower Troposphere (TLT) as retrieved from satellite observations at the University of Alabama at Huntsville.

The value for is an estimate based on the Jan-Oct data. The global mean TLT differs from the global mean near-surface temperature in. Due to rapid economic development in recent years, China has become a major global source of refractory black carbon (rBC) particles.

However, surface rBC measurements have been limited, and the lower troposphere suffers from a complete lack of measurements, especially in heavily rBC-polluted regions such as China’s capital, Beijing (BJ). Over the past decade, the number of studies that investigate aerosol–cloud interactions has increased considerably.

Although tremendous progress has been made to improve the understanding of basic physical mechanisms of aerosol–cloud interactions and reduce their uncertainties in climate forcing, there is still poor understanding of 1) some of the mechanisms that interact with each other Cited by: An understanding of the mechanisms and kinetics of aerosol formation and ozone production in the troposphere is currently a high priority because these phenomena are recognized as two major effects of energy-related air pollution.

Atmospheric aerosols are of concern because of their effect on visibility, climate, and human health. These studies yielded the most complete set of aerosol composition measurements to date throughout the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and tropical lower stratosphere.

We describe the aerosol properties of the tropical atmosphere and use composition tracers to examine particle sources, the role of recent convection, and cirrus-forming potential.

Reiter, Reinhold. Overview. Fields, currents and aerosols in the lower troposphere by Reinhold Reiter The procedure for exact determination of air currents in the valley experiment using pilot balloons was further developed and respective computer programs set up.

Preparatory work was done for installation of the aerosol generator on. A Russian team tested aerosol formation in the lower troposphere using helicopters. The Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering (SPICE) project planned on a limited field test in order to evaluate a potential delivery system, but this component of the project was canceled.

Near-surface atmospheric measurements over urban or industrial areas aimed at assisting the air-quality monitoring attain increasing societal significance due to the strong and direct impact of aerosol pollutions in the low troposphere on the human health. In this chapter, we present experimental results on lidar mapping of aerosol fields over the city of Sofia (Bulgaria), its suburbs and Cited by: 2.

Aerosols may affect climate through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation and, in the case of large dust particles, by interacting with thermal radiation1,2,3.

But whether atmospheric Cited by: In fact, concentrations of SO 4 2−, a major ionic component of atmospheric aerosol, in the Arctic lower troposphere are very low (approximately μg m −3 [Sirois and Barrie, ]) in summer–early autumn compared to the concentrations (>2 μg m −3) normally observed at remote sites in Japan [e.g., Mukai et al., ; Osada et al., ].Cited by: Hence the vertical mass exchange processes are enhanced in the lower troposphere which result in the enhanced aerosol current and gives rise to larger surface atmospheric electric fields.

Thus the universal diurnal variation of the surface atmospheric electric field is a response of the vertical mass exchange processes to the global ionospheric turbulent eddy energisation due to global.

Tropospheric aerosol effect on climate: reflects and absorbs incoming solar radiation - cooling affect at surface, can lead to warming in troposphere.

absorbs LW radiation - warming effect (especially the black sooty aerosols emitted through fossil fuel and biomass burning) The net effect of tropospheric aerosols is.

Stratosphere And Upper Troposphere Our group, which includes members of the JPL science team for the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) project, provides scientific leadership in conceiving, developing, implementing, and analyzing remote sensing composition measurements to better characterize Earth’s atmosphere and climate.

Global Warming Slowdown: The View from Space. by Roy W. Spencer, Ph. Since the slowdown in surface warming over the last 15 years has been a popular topic recently, I thought I would show results for the lower tropospheric temperature (LT) compared to climate models calculated over the same atmospheric layers the satellites sense.

Aerosol particles, being important to both global climate 1,2 and atmospheric chemistry 3, can be directly emitted from natural or anthropogenic sources and secondarily formed in the atmosphere l dust, with an emission rate of – Tg per year from deserts or semiarid areas 4, is the most important primary aerosol particle source and dominates the aerosol mass in the global Cited by: In the atmospheric science field, lidar is often used to detect or measure a variety of atmospheric parameters, such as physical and optical properties of cloud and aerosol, atmo-spheric.

Nonvolcanic stratospheric aerosols account for 20% of the radiative forcing of the entire atmospheric aerosol system since The Asian summer monsoon (ASM) effectively pumps Asian pollutants to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, leading to enhanced aerosol formation.

Our in situ measurements combined with modeling work show that the aerosol formed within the ASM Cited by: These aerosols in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (majorly sulphates and organic carbons) affects the climate indirectly (via formation of cirrus clouds).

natural effect that releases heat in the atmosphere (troposphere) near the earth's surface. water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and other gases in the troposphere absorb some of the infrared radiation (heat) radiated by the earth's surface.

their molecules vibrate and transform the absorbed energy into longer-wavelength infrared radiation (heat) in the troposphere. if the atmospheric. The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere.

The troposphere extends from Earth's surface up to a height of 7 to 20 km (4 to 12 miles, or 23, to 65, feet) above sea level. Most of the mass (about %) of the atmosphere is in the troposphere, and almost all weather occurs within this layer. Air is warmest at the bottom of. The idea is to artificially increase the concentrations of ‘white’ atmospheric aerosol particles above the surface of the ocean and/or in the lower stratosphere (above where weather occurs) in order to reflect more of the sun’s energy away from Earth.

The field of climate intervention (still in its infancy), has the potential to buy us. For an overview on the different parameters affecting the radiation in the lower troposphere see Schwander et al. (). The effect of aerosols on ground actinic radiation is shown, for example, in Blackburn et al.

(). It is possible to calculate homogeneous cloud layers in one dimensional models but comparison of ground-based measurements Cited by:   The Stratospheric-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) has two objectives: A.

Investigate the mechanism and rates of irreversible transfer of mass, trace gases, and aerosols from troposphere to stratosphere and within the lower stratosphere. B. Explain the observed extreme dryness of the stratosphere. Thus, the observing strategy was to sample aerosol, cloud, and boundary layer properties upwind from the transition zone over the North Pacific and to resample these areas one or two days later.

This Lagrangian approach was designed to minimize uncertainties in the large-scale forcing due to horizontal advection in the lower troposphere and.

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